The Portal of Geriatrics Online Education

6 CBD: Determine etiology of delirium

6. In an older patient with delirium, urgently initiate a diagnostic work-up to determine the root cause (etiology).

Simulation Curriculum for Geriatric Medicine Fellows

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
999
Abstract: 

This material consists of a suite of nine simulated clinical cases, divided into three separate sessions of three cases each, intended to be conducted in a simulation center with simulated patients.  Cases are designed to teach geriatric medicine fellows and other appropriate learners basic geriatric assessment skills (Session one), how to navigate difficult situations in long-term care (Session two), and high-level communication skills in palliative and end-of-life care (Session three).  Each case consists of a multi-page document outlining scripts for the learner as well as the roles (patient, family member, facility staff, etc) portrayed by actors, necessary props and supporting materials, and instructions for evaluating and debriefing the learner.  Also contained in each document are Entrustable Professional Activities (EPA), Curricular Milestones (CM), and Reporting Milestones (RM) relevant to the case.

Educational objectives: 

- Efficiently and effectively assess and manage common geriatric syndromes in a variety of clinical settings.

- Demonstrate the ability to navigate difficult communication scenarios in a long-term care environment, while providing leadership, mediating conflict between interdisciplinary team members and/or family members, and providing high quality care.

- Provide compassionsate, patient-centered care at the end of life, using high-level communication strategies.

Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 

n/a

Publications from, presentations from, and/or citations to this product: 

None, though plans to present this at AGS/ADGAP in 2019.

Date posted: 
Mon, 11/12/2018
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Wed, 08/08/2018
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Simulation Curriculum for Geriatric Medicine Fellows. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2018 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/83

ACUTE MANAGEMENT OF OLDER ADULT FOUND DOWN WITH ALTERED MENTAL STATUS

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Other Learning Resource Type: 
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
2
Abstract: 

This case study was developed for use in academic coursework and as a standalone training for health care providers (MDs, ARNP, Pharmacists, Social Workers, Nurses). This unfolding case study about the management of an older adult in the midst of a health crisis. This case is a composite of many actual cases seen in Emergency Departments. During the course of this case study, learners are presented with information as the providers learn of the patient’s emergent and ongoing health concerns – from her Emergency Department admission through her Intensive Care Unit stay. Learners are asked to make decisions and use their best judgment about how to care for this patient.

Educational objectives: 

 

  • Apply knowledge of evidence-based care provision to an older adult found with altered mental status after a ground level fall
  • Describe the contributions of the interprofessional team to care management
  • Demonstrate effective communication during handoffs in care
Publications from, presentations from, and/or citations to this product: 

Citations are listed at the bottom of the screen throughout the case study.

Date posted: 
Fri, 07/27/2018
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Tue, 05/22/2018
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
ACUTE MANAGEMENT OF OLDER ADULT FOUND DOWN WITH ALTERED MENTAL STATUS. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2018 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/83

Geriatric Medicine Consult Curriculum for Orthopedic Surgery

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Abstract: 

Geriatrics/medicine curriculum developed for Orthopedic residents to complete during a required Internal Medicine consult rotation.  Topics include: preoperative assessment, medication reconcilliation and adverse drug events, post-operative complications including delirium, care transitions, and common inpatient medical problems.   Curriculum also includes references to relevant high-yield literature for additional information.

Educational objectives: 

Provide learners (specifically orthopedic surgery interns) with an introduction to common inpatient medical problems and post-operative complications.  At the end of this curriculum, learners should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the work-up and management of  common inpatient problems and post-operative complications, and apply this knowledge to the direct care of patients.  Learners should be able to identify common adverse events in older patients.

Date posted: 
Mon, 10/17/2016
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Mon, 10/17/2016
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Geriatric Medicine Consult Curriculum for Orthopedic Surgery. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2016 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/83

The Hospitalized Older Adult

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
999
Abstract: 

Older adults are exposed to multiple hazards during hospitalization resulting in multiple complications that limit their return to their functional and cognitive baseline. It is critical that healthcare providers are trained on best practices in the care of hospitalized older adults. This product is a monthlong module for M4 students during their Sub I rotation, that focuses on educating them on the hazards of hospitalization, best practices in the care of hospitalized older adults, issues that occur during transitions of care and best practices to ensure optimal transitions across care settings. The module starts with an initial lecture on hazards of hospitalization and best practices in the care of older adults. This is followed by assignments in which students are assigned older aduts to care for. Using a checklist, they evaluate the care that these patients have received and also implement best practices in the care of their patient. They also participate in an interdisciplinary team meeting that focuses on these aspects of care.  This is followed by another assignment in which they are involved in deciding on the most appropriate discharge care setting their patient. They subsequently place a post discharge call to their patient to identify any issues thay may have encountered post discharge and assist them in resolving some of these issues. Through the month, students share their experiences on blackboard, outlining hazards they identified in their patients,  challenges in implementing best practices, choice of discharge care setting and reasons for their choices along with care transitions issues identified in their patients. Additionally they are required to review educational materials and published articles posted on blackboard, focused on hazards of hospitalization, best practices in care, settings of care and transitions of care.  A final class is held with the students at the end of the month discussing the rotation and their experiences, with a focus on settings of care and best practices in transitions of care.

Educational objectives: 

At the end of this course, each participant will be able to:

1. Describe the hazards of hospitalization of older adults.

2. Evaluate the care and implement best practices in the management of a hospitalized older adult.

3. Enumerate the discharge options available in a particular case scenario.

4. Compare and contrast the problematic elements of care transition with those of an ideal care transition.

Date posted: 
Tue, 10/25/2016
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Tue, 10/25/2016
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
The Hospitalized Older Adult. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2016 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/83

Geriatric Interprofessional Teaching Clinic (GITC)

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Other Learning Resource Type: 
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 
•Collaborative interprofessional practice and care are essential to the complex healthcare needs of a rapidly growing older adult population.
•Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) occurs when various health care practitioners, clients and/or caregivers work together to improve a client’s overall health.
•Teaching an IPC model continues to be a major gap in every health professionals’ education.
•To address this gap, the Geriatrics Interprofessional Teaching Clinic (GITC) at the University of Kansas Medical Center's Landon Center on Aging was created. It incorporates six professions: Students and faculty from  Physical Therapy, Medicine, Pharmacy, Social Welfare, Dietitics/Nutrition and Occupational Therapy.
•It is scheduled one half day a week with four patients scheduled on a "rolling" basis allowing for interprofessional teams of three to see patients in a staggered fashion. On average, each visit takes approximately 60-90 minutes.
•Logistically, students from 3 professions review the medical record together, discuss what they want to accomplish in the room, and how they will approach the patient encounter as a team. The students then see the patient and report back to the attending physician and other health professions faculty as a team. The assessment and plan for the patient is developed by the team.
•Team members are asked to define their roles by what the patient needs at that particular visit, starting with their own professional training and scope of practice, but then encouraged to allow themselves to participate in new ways. The interprofessional clinic faculty assist the learners by facilitating reflection on their clinical performance as individuals and as a team at the time of the clinic visit, incorporating their reflections into their next clinical encounter and through debriefing.
•To quantify interprofessional collaboration, evaluation tools are being piloted to assess for team dynamics, and surveys are sent out to each individual learner to assess for behavior and attitude changes. These are both done at the "beginning" and "end" of their GITC experience.
 
 
Educational objectives: 
•Create an interprofessional (IP) clinic involving multiple learners, emphasizing the national interprofessional competencies (values/ethics, roles/responsibilities, interprofessional communication and teams/teamwork).
•Train students in IP teams to evaluate their communication with the patient and with other team members following a patient encounter in GITC using a validated rubric. 
•Monitor changes in IP team behavior through individual learner evaluations.
Date posted: 
Mon, 10/10/2016
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Mon, 10/10/2016
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Geriatric Interprofessional Teaching Clinic (GITC). POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2016 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/83

Transitions of Care Workshop- Preparing 4th year Medical Students for Internship

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
2
Abstract: 

Care Transitions are complicated and ineffective transitions result in poor patient outcomes and readmissions. The Association for American Medical Colleges (AAMC) has recently developed Entrustable Professional Activities (EPA) required for graduating medical students and two of the thirteen focus on transition of care issues. Residency programs are formalizing curricula around this topic as it is one of six focus areas within the Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) program, however graduating medical students have no formalized training in Care Transitions as of this time. This product provides a framework for practical training for graduating medical students and interns. A case based workshop on care transitions was created and utilized to instruct 4th yeard medical students and  Interns.  This included a small group didactic and a team based problem-solving session focused on a discharge case of a geriatric patient with multimorbidity. This curriculum was initially designed for medical students and interns on Internal Medicine, but can also be utilized to instruct learners in other fields and interprofessional learners.

Educational objectives: 
Define a care transition
Identify those at high risk for a complicated care transition
Apply specific risk assessment tools including the 8P’s, to estimate risk
Appraise the consequences resulting from ineffective transitions of care
Formulate a  safe care transition and discharge plan
Identify the important components of  successful transitional care
Additional information/Special implementation requirements or guidelines: 
Transitions of Care curriculum for 4th year medical students and Medical Interns
Interactive case based workshop to provide practical training on Transitions of Care
Small group classroom session with power point presentation and with a team based problem-solving component focusing on a discharge case of a geriatric patient with multimorbidit
Faculty Guide designed to guide active learning while students worked through the case in their teams
Publications from, presentations from, and/or citations to this product: 

Kranz, Kimberly, Strano-Paul, Lisa.  Preparing Graduating 4th year Medical Students for Internship- Implementing a Transitions of Care Workshop. Model Geriatric Programs: Geriatric Education Materials and Methods Swap. Presented at American Geriatric Society Annual Meeting Long Beach CA May 2016   

Kranz, K, Strano-Paul L, Go, R. Preparing graduating 4th year medical students for internship: Implementing a Transitions of Care Workshop. American Geriatric Society Annual Meeting, Long Beach CA, May 2016.

Kranz, K, Strano-Paul L, Go, R. Preparing graduating 4th year medical students for internship: Implementing a Transitions of Care Workshop. Women in Medicine Research Day. Stony Brook School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY March 2016.

Kranz, K, Strano-Paul L, Go, R. Preparing graduating 4th year medical students for internship: Implementing a Transitions of Care Workshop. Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine, Academic Internal Medicine Week, Atlanta, GA. October 2015.

                               

Date posted: 
Mon, 06/20/2016
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Mon, 06/20/2016
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Transitions of Care Workshop- Preparing 4th year Medical Students for Internship. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2016 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/83

3D (dementia, depression, delirium) Flipped Classroom Didactic for Medical Students

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
2
Abstract: 

Background: Dementia, delirium, and depression are core minimum competencies outlined by the AAMC (Association of American Medical Colleges) for medical students by graduation. Focus groups with Hopkins’ medical students found that they had variable clinical experiences with 3Ds during neurology and psychiatry rotations and found it challenging to take a history from a patient with cognitive impairment.
Methods: A joint curriculum was established with psychiatry and neurology core clerkship directors for third and fourth year medical students. Pre-session: PowerPoint with information on 3Ds, mini-cog, 4AT, and PHQ-9. Using pre-recorded simulated videos, students completed worksheets and discussed in class. Additionally we incorporated an in person caregiver interview. We assessed students’ knowledge with in-class audience response questions, pre and post evaluations on how well learning objectives were addressed, and three month post didactic to assess behavior change. This curriculum will be repeated 4 more times during 2015-2016 academic year.
Results: In the first 3 quarters, 64 students completed didactic. Students scored 44-78% correct on 3/6 knowledge test questions (other 3 questions scored >90% correct). Students demonstrated most improvement in use and interpret mini-cog for dementia screen and 4AT for delirium screen as well as communication skills with patients and caregivers. No self-reported change pre and post didactic for students’ ability to differentiating between dementia and depression, or between dementia and delirium. Most importantly, a majority of students identified the importance of communicating with caregivers and providing support not only for the patient, but also for the caregiver. At three months follow up survey (75% completion rate), students identified communication techniques and understanding caregiver’s challenges as the most useful “take home” points from didactic.
Conclusions: Overall the 3D didactic was well received by medical students. They improved in identifying when to use screening tools for 3Ds, which may translate from knowledge to behavior at their next rotations. They also overwhelmingly identified the importance of communicating and assessing caregivers’ needs. More data will be collected during additional sessions this academic year. This curriculum could be easily disseminated without much additional resources.

Educational objectives: 

Knowledge & Skills objectives:
1. Recognize, compare and contrast  delirium, dementia, and depression in various clinical presentations.
2. Formulate a differential diagnosis and implement initial evaluation in a patient who exhibits delirium, dementia, or depression by evaluating video interviews among patient, caregiver, and provider triad communication skills.
3.  Assess an older patient with delirium, initiate a diagnostic work-up to determine the root cause (etiology), by identifying predisposing factors and differential diagnosis of delirium, by utilizing  non pharmacologic strategies for delirium.
4. Perform and interpret a cognitive assessment in older patients for whom there are concerns regarding memory or function by demonstrating the ability to differentiate the result of 4AT (rapid assessment test of delirium) based on video interview of delirious patient.  Proficiency to use Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE)and mini-cog to determine cognitive impairment.

Program/process Objectives:
• ≥ 95% of medical students in neurology and psychiatry rotation will attend the dementia day.
• Of students who attended didactic in person, 100% of the medical students will have demonstrated the ability to distinguish dementia, delirium, and depression using worksheets based on video interviews.

 

Publications from, presentations from, and/or citations to this product: 

AGS poster presentation 2016

AGS Educational Showcase 2016

Date posted: 
Tue, 07/26/2016
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Tue, 07/26/2016
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
3D (dementia, depression, delirium) Flipped Classroom Didactic for Medical Students. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2016 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/83

Your Role in Delirium Detection and Treatment: An Interdisciplinary Approach

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Other Sponsors: 
Other Intended Learner Audiences: 
Other Learning Resource Type: 
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

This 24 minute video defines delirium and clarifies the role of each member of the acute care interdisciplinary team in detecting delirium and communicating with team members in the SBAR format (Situation, Background, Assessment and Request/Recommendation.)  The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is highlighted as the tool to use for delirium detection.  The video includes some voiceover with PowerPoint slides and a TeamSTEPPS video depictng a hospital nurse SBAR report to a provider on a patient with possible delirium. 

Educational objectives: 

Upon completion of this material, you will be able to:

  • Define and understand delirium and its significance in patient care.
  • Learn how to administer and interpret the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM.)
  • Define your role on an interdisciplinary team in caring for hospitalized patients with delirium.
  • Learn how to communicate effectively about delirium using SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Request/Recommendation).

 

Date posted: 
Mon, 06/13/2016
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Mon, 06/13/2016
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Your Role in Delirium Detection and Treatment: An Interdisciplinary Approach. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2016 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/83

Ambulatory Geriatrics Curriculum for Internal Medicine Residents Module on BPSD: Agitation and Behavioral Problems in Dementia

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

In 2012, 5.4 million Americans are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease.  Lifetime risk of experiencing BPSD (Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia) is nearly 100%.  BPSD is associated with increased morbidity and nursing home placement and is potentially treatable.  The information in this curriculum has been created to help the general internal medicine residents have a structured approach to the evaluation and management of BPSD.  This is the 3rd topic covered in a four part ambulatory geriatric curriculum that was developed for internal medicine residents.  To learn more about the successful ambulatory curriculum developed, please  check out  manuscript by Chang C1, Callahan EH, Hung WW, Thomas DC, Leipzig RM, DeCherrie LV. A Model for Integrating the Assessment and Management of Geriatric Syndromes Into Internal Medicine Continuity Practice: 5-Year Report. Gerontol Geriatr Educ. 2015 Jul 9:1-15.

Educational objectives: 

At the conclusion of this module, learners will be able to:

  1. Define BPSD
  2. Evaluate BPSD
  3. Discuss the Guidelines for Management of BPSD
    • Nonpharmacologic Interventions
    • Pharmacologic Interventions
Publications from, presentations from, and/or citations to this product: 

Christine Changab*, Eileen H. Callahanab, William W. Hungc, David C. Thomasb, Rosanne M. Leipzigab & Linda V. DeCherrieab A Model for Integrating the Assessment and Management of Geriatric Syndromes Into Internal Medicine Continuity Practice: 5-Year Report Gerontology & Geriatrics Education. Published online: 09 Jul 2015. DOI:10.1080/02701960.2015.1031897.

Date posted: 
Mon, 09/12/2016
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Mon, 09/12/2016
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Ambulatory Geriatrics Curriculum for Internal Medicine Residents Module on BPSD: Agitation and Behavioral Problems in Dementia. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2016 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/83

Nonpharmacologic Management of BPSD: Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

:  
Date Posted: 
12/31/1969
Date Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
12/31/1969
Product Information
Estimated time to complete: 
1
Abstract: 

In 2012, 5.4 million Americans were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease.  Lifetime risk of experiencing BPSD (Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia) is nearly 100%.  BPSD is associated with increased morbidity and nursing home placement and is potentially treatable.  The information in this curriculum has been created to help the general internist have a structured approach to the evaluation and management of BPSD. 

Educational objectives: 

Participants will be able to:

  1. Define BPSD
  2. Evaluate BPSD
  3. Discuss the Guidelines for Management of BPSD
Date posted: 
Mon, 09/12/2016
Date Submitted or Reviewed/Updated for Clinical Accuracy: 
Mon, 09/12/2016
Contact Person/Corresponding Author:



Suggested Citation:
Nonpharmacologic Management of BPSD: Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia. POGOe - Portal of Geriatrics Online Education; 2016 Available from: https://pogoe.org/taxonomy/term/83

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